There are four basic performance factors that need to be balanced to engineer the right product for the right application. Tongue Tear, Tensile Strength, Adhesion, and Abrasion. While these are not the only performance factors that we use to measure the strength of a product, they are the most common.
We test for each of these parameters using a defined set of guidelines set by ASTM International (formerly) known as the American Society for Testing and Materials). Each of these factors, when manufacturing a product can impact one another. For example; if you want to maximize the tear or tensile strength of a product (based on the fabric construction used to meet the product’s manufacturing style, weight, use, etc…) a lower heat setting is required during manufacturing. A low heat setting will result in a lower adhesion result. This also applies if you reverse the process to increase adhesion with more heat, which will impact the integrity of the base fabric lowering your tear or tensile strength.
Value Vinyls has a full department dedicated to the proper engineering of each and every product to maximize the quality, value, and strength best suited for each application. Below is a breakdown to further clarify each of these performance factors.
Tongue Tear (ASTM D2261) is a measurement of the tearing strength of a textile fabric with a single rip (tongue) procedure that is performed by cutting the edge of the fabric before initiating the test. The results are measured in pound force at a failing point of both the warp and weft direction of the fabric.
Tensile Strength (ASTM D5034) is a measurement of breaking strength used to determine the pound-force within one inch in both the warp and weft direction of the fabric. The test is performed by cutting the center of the fabric (simulating a puncture or tear in the material).
Adhesion (ASTM D751) is a measured measurement of the strength of the film or coating to the base fabric measured typically in pound force by two inches. Two strips of fabric are adhered face to back either by the weld or by adhesive. There are other performance criteria that also fall within the ASTM D751 standard.
Abrasion (ASTM D3884) is a test designed to evaluate the rate at which the coating will abrade or wear away on the face or backside of a material. It uses a rotary platform in conjunction with two abrasive stone wheels with the addition of a determined amount of weight. This test is measured in cycles in a range of styles depending on the purpose of the test (whether by a set number of cycles; at the point, the base fabric begins to show; at the point, the base fabric is fully exposed; etc.)
If you have more questions or need further clarity on these or any other performance factors, we welcome the inquiry.